Given to Israel
chapter is based on Exodus 19 to 24.]
after the encampment at Sinai, Moses was called up into the mountain to
meet with God. Alone he climbed the steep and rugged path, and drew near
to the cloud that marked the place of Jehovah's presence. Israel was now
to be taken into a close and peculiar relation to the Most High--to be
incorporated as a church and a nation under the government of God. The
message to Moses for the people was:
seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles' wings,
and brought you unto Myself. Now therefore, if ye will obey My voice
indeed, and keep My covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto Me
above all people: for all the earth is Mine: and ye shall be unto Me a
kingdom of priests, and an holy nation."
returned to the camp, and having summoned the elders of Israel, he
repeated to them the divine message. Their answer was, "All that the
Lord hath spoken we will do." Thus they entered into a solemn
covenant with God, pledging themselves to accept Him as their ruler, by
which they became, in a special sense, the subjects of His authority.
leader ascended the mountain, and the Lord said unto him, "Lo, I come
unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with
thee, and believe thee forever." When they met with difficulties in
the way, they were disposed to murmur against Moses and Aaron, and accuse
them of leading the hosts of Israel from Egypt to destroy them. The Lord
would honor Moses before them, that they might be led to confide in his
to make the occasion of speaking His law a scene of awful grandeur, in
keeping with its exalted character. The people were to be impressed that
everything connected with the service of God must be regarded with the
The Lord said to Moses, "Go unto the people, and
sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their clothes, and be
ready against the third day: for the third day the Lord will come down in
the sight of all the people upon Mount Sinai." During these
intervening days all were to occupy the time in solemn preparation to
appear before God. Their person and their clothing must be freed from
impurity. And as Moses should point out their sins, they were to devote
themselves to humiliation, fasting, and prayer, that their hearts might be
cleansed from iniquity.
preparations were made, according to the command; and in obedience to a
further injunction, Moses directed that a barrier be placed about the
mount, that neither man nor beast might intrude upon the sacred precinct.
If any ventured so much as to touch it, the penalty was instant death.
morning of the third day, as the eyes of all the people were turned toward
the mount, its summit was covered with a thick cloud, which grew more
black and dense, sweeping downward until the entire mountain was wrapped
in darkness and awful mystery. Then a sound as of a trumpet was heard,
summoning the people to meet with God; and Moses led them forth to the
base of the mountain. From the thick darkness flashed vivid lightnings,
while peals of thunder echoed and re-echoed among the surrounding heights.
"And Mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the Lord
descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of
a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly." "The glory of
the Lord was like devouring fire on the top of the mount" in the
sight of the assembled multitude. And "the voice of the trumpet
sounded long, and waxed louder and louder." So terrible were the
tokens of Jehovah's presence that the hosts of Israel shook with fear, and
fell upon their faces before the Lord. Even Moses exclaimed, "I
exceedingly fear and quake." Hebrews 12:21.
And now the
thunders ceased; the trumpet was no longer heard; the earth was still.
There was a period of solemn silence, and then the voice of God was heard.
Speaking out of the thick darkness that enshrouded Him, as He stood upon
the mount, surrounded by a retinue of angels, the Lord made known His law.
Moses, describing the scene, says: "The Lord
came from Sinai, and
rose up from Seir unto them; He shined forth from Mount Paran, and He came
with ten thousands of saints: from His right hand went a fiery law for
them. Yea, He loved the people; all His saints are in Thy hand: and they
sat down at Thy feet; every one shall receive of Thy words."
Deuteronomy 33:2, 3.
revealed Himself, not alone in the awful majesty of the judge and
lawgiver, but as the compassionate guardian of His people: "I am the
Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the
house of bondage." He whom they had already known as their Guide and
Deliverer, who had brought them forth from Egypt, making a way for them
through the sea, and overthrowing Pharaoh and his hosts, who had thus
shown Himself to be above all the gods of Egypt--He it was who now spoke
The law was
not spoken at this time exclusively for the benefit of the Hebrews. God
honored them by making them the guardians and keepers of His law, but it
was to be held as a sacred trust for the whole world. The precepts of the
Decalogue are adapted to all mankind, and they were given for the
instruction and government of all. Ten precepts, brief, comprehensive, and
authoritative, cover the duty of man to God and to his fellow man; and all
based upon the great fundamental principle of love. "Thou shalt love
the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all
thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself."
Luke 10:27. See also Deuteronomy 6:4, 5; Leviticus 19:18. In the Ten
Commandments these principles are carried out in detail, and made
applicable to the condition and circumstances of man.
shalt have no other gods before Me."
eternal, self-existent, uncreated One, Himself the Source and Sustainer of
all, is alone entitled to supreme reverence and worship. Man is forbidden
to give to any other object the first place in his affections or his
service. Whatever we cherish that tends to lessen our love for God or to
interfere with the service due Him, of that do we make a god.
shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything
that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in
the water under the earth: thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor
commandment forbids the worship of the true God by images or similitudes.
Many heathen nations claimed that their images were mere figures or
symbols by which the Deity was worshiped, but God has declared such
worship to be sin. The attempt to represent the Eternal One by material
objects would lower man's conception of God. The mind, turned away from
the infinite perfection of Jehovah, would be attracted to the creature
rather than to the Creator. And as his conceptions of God were lowered, so
would man become degraded.
Lord thy God am a jealous God." The close and sacred relation of God
to His people is represented under the figure of marriage. Idolatry being
spiritual adultery, the displeasure of God against it is fitly called
the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth
generation of them that hate Me." It is inevitable that children
should suffer from the consequences of parental wrongdoing, but they are
not punished for the parents' guilt, except as they participate in their
sins. It is usually the case, however, that children walk in the steps of
their parents. By inheritance and example the sons become partakers of the
father's sin. Wrong tendencies, perverted appetites, and debased morals,
as well as physical disease and degeneracy, are transmitted as a legacy
from father to son, to the third and fourth generation. This fearful truth
should have a solemn power to restrain men from following a course of sin.
mercy unto thousands of them that love Me, and keep My commandments."
In prohibiting the worship of false gods, the second commandment by
implication enjoins the worship of the true God. And to those who are
faithful in His service, mercy is promised, not merely to the third and
fourth generation as is the wrath threatened against those who hate Him,
but to thousands of generations.
shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not
hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain."
commandment not only prohibits false oaths and common swearing, but it
forbids us to use the name of God in a light or careless manner, without
regard to its awful significance. By the thoughtless mention of God in
common conversation, by appeals to Him in trivial matters, and by the
thoughtless repetition of His name, we dishonor Him.
"Holy and reverend is His name." Psalm 111:9. All should
meditate upon His majesty, His purity and holiness, that the heart may be
impressed with a sense of His exalted character; and His holy name should
be uttered with reverence and solemnity.
the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor, and do all
thy work: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it
thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy
manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is
within thy gates: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea,
and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord
blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it."
is not introduced as a new institution but as having been founded at
creation. It is to be remembered and observed as the memorial of the
Creator's work. Pointing to God as the Maker of the heavens and the earth,
it distinguishes the true God from all false gods. All who keep the
seventh day signify by this act that they are worshipers of Jehovah. Thus
the Sabbath is the sign of man's allegiance to God as long as there are
any upon the earth to serve Him. The fourth commandment is the only one of
all the ten in which are found both the name and the title of the
Lawgiver. It is the only one that shows by whose authority the law is
given. Thus it contains the seal of God, affixed to His law as evidence of
its authenticity and binding force.
God has given
me six days wherein to labor, and He requires that their own work be done
in the six working days. Acts of necessity and mercy are permitted on the
Sabbath, the sick and suffering are at all times to be cared for; but
unnecessary labor is to be strictly avoided. "Turn away thy foot from
the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on My holy day; and call the Sabbath
a delight, the holy of the Lord, honorable; and . . . honor Him, not doing
thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure." Isaiah 58:13. Nor
does the prohibition end here. "Nor speaking thine own words,"
says the prophet. Those who discuss business matters or lay plans on the
Sabbath are regarded by God as though engaged in the actual transaction of
business. To keep the Sabbath holy, we should not even allow our minds to
dwell upon things of a worldly character. And the commandment includes all
within our gates. The inmates of the
house are to lay aside their worldly
business during the sacred hours. All should unite to honor God by willing
service upon His holy day.
thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which
the Lord thy God giveth thee."
entitled to a degree of love and respect which is due to no other person.
God Himself, who has placed upon them a responsibility for the souls
committed to their charge, has ordained that during the earlier years of
life, parents shall stand in the place of God to their children. And he
who rejects the rightful authority of his parents is rejecting the
authority of God. The fifth commandment requires children not only to
yield respect, submission, and obedience to their parents, but also to
give them love and tenderness, to lighten their cares, to guard their
reputation, and to succor and comfort them in old age. It also enjoins
respect for ministers and rulers and for all others to whom God has
the apostle, "is the first commandment with promise." Ephesians
6:2. To Israel, expecting soon to enter Canaan, it was a pledge to the
obedient, of long life in that good, land; but it has a wider meaning,
including all the Israel of God, and promising eternal life upon the earth
when it shall be freed from the curse of sin.
shalt not kill."
All acts of
injustice that tend to shorten life; the spirit of hatred and revenge, or
the indulgence of any passion that leads to injurious acts toward others,
or causes us even to wish them harm (for "whosoever hateth his
brother is a murderer"); a selfish neglect of caring for the needy or
suffering; all self-indulgence or unnecessary deprivation or excessive
labor that tends to injure health--all these are, to a greater or less
degree, violations of the sixth commandment.
shalt not commit adultery."
commandment forbids not only acts of impurity, but sensual thoughts and
desires, or any practice that tends to excite them. Purity is demanded not
only in the outward life but in the secret intents and emotions of the
heart. Christ, who taught the far-reaching obligation of the law of God,
declared the evil thought or look to be as truly sin as is the unlawful
shalt not steal."
and private sins are included in this prohibition. The eighth commandment
condemns manstealing and slave dealing, and forbids wars of conquest. It
condemns theft and robbery. It demands strict integrity in the minutest
details of the affairs of life. It forbids overreaching in trade, and
requires the payment of just debts or wages. It declares that every
attempt to advantage oneself by the ignorance, weakness, or misfortune of
another is registered as fraud in the books of heaven.
shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor."
speaking in any matter, every attempt or purpose to deceive our neighbor,
is here included. An intention to deceive is what constitutes falsehood.
By a glance of the eye, a motion of the hand, an expression of the
countenance, a falsehood may be told as effectually as by words. All
intentional overstatement, every hint or insinuation calculated to convey
an erroneous or exaggerated impression, even the statement of facts in
such a manner as to mislead, is falsehood. This precept forbids every
effort to injure our neighbor's reputation by misrepresentation or evil
surmising, by slander or tale bearing. Even the intentional suppression of
truth, by which injury may result to others, is a violation of the ninth
shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's
wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass,
nor anything that is thy neighbor's."
commandment strikes at the very root of all sins, prohibiting the selfish
desire, from which springs the sinful act. He who in obedience to God's
law refrains from indulging even a sinful desire for that which belongs to
another will not be guilty of an act of wrong toward his fellow creatures.
Such were the
sacred precepts of the Decalogue, spoken amid thunder and flame, and with
a wonderful display of the power and majesty of the great Lawgiver. God
accompanied the proclamation of His law with exhibitions of His power and
glory, that His people might never forget the scene, and that they might
be impressed with profound veneration for the Author of the law, the
Creator of heaven and earth. He would also show to all men the sacredness,
the importance, and the permanence of His law.
The people of
Israel were overwhelmed with terror. The awful power of God's utterances
seemed more than their trembling hearts could bear. For as God's great
rule of right was
presented before them, they realized as never before the
offensive character of sin, and their own guilt in the sight of a holy
God. They shrank away from the mountain in fear and awe. The multitude
cried out to Moses, "Speak thou with us, and we will hear: but let
not God speak with us, lest we die." The leader answered, "Fear
not: for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before your
faces, that ye sin not." The people, however, remained at a distance,
gazing in terror upon the scene, while Moses "drew near unto the
thick darkness where God was."
The minds of
the people, blinded and debased by slavery and heathenism, were not
prepared to appreciate fully the far-reaching principles of God's ten
precepts. That the obligations of the Decalogue might be more fully
understood and enforced, additional precepts were given, illustrating and
applying the principles of the Ten Commandments. These laws were called
judgments, both because they were framed in infinite wisdom and equity and
because the magistrates were to give judgment according to them. Unlike
the Ten Commandments, they were delivered privately to Moses, who was to
communicate them to the people.
The first of
these laws related to servants. In ancient times criminals were sometimes
sold into slavery by the judges; in some cases, debtors were sold by their
creditors; and poverty even led persons to sell themselves or their
children. But a Hebrew could not be sold as a slave for life. His term of
service was limited to six years; on the seventh he was to be set at
liberty. Manstealing, deliberate murder, and rebellion against parental
authority were to be punished with death. The holding of slaves not of
Israelitish birth was permitted, but their life and person were strictly
guarded. The murderer of a slave was to be punished; an injury inflicted
upon one by his master, though no more than the loss of a tooth, entitled
him to his freedom.
Israelites had lately been servants themselves, and now that they were to
have servants under them, they were to beware of indulging the spirit of
cruelty and exaction from which they had suffered under their Egyptian
taskmasters. The memory of their own bitter servitude should enable them
to put themselves in the servant's place, leading them to be kind and
compassionate, to deal with others as they would wish to be dealt with.
The rights of
widows and orphans were especially guarded, and a tender regard for their
helpless condition was enjoined.
"If thou afflict them in any
wise," the Lord declared, "and they cry at all unto Me, I will
surely hear their cry; and My wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you
with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children
fatherless." Aliens who united themselves with Israel were to be
protected from wrong or oppression. "Thou shalt not oppress a
stranger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in
the land of Egypt."
The taking of
usury from the poor was forbidden. A poor man's raiment or blanket taken
as a pledge, must be restored to him at nightfall. He who was guilty of
theft was required to restore double. Respect for magistrates and rulers
was enjoined, and judges were warned against perverting judgment, aiding a
false cause, or receiving bribes. Calumny and slander were prohibited, and
acts of kindness enjoined, even toward personal enemies.
people were reminded of the sacred obligation of the Sabbath. Yearly
feasts were appointed, at which all the men of the nation were to assemble
before the Lord, bringing to Him their offerings of gratitude and the
first fruits of His bounties. The object of all these regulations was
stated: they proceeded from no exercise of mere arbitrary sovereignty; all
were given for the good of Israel. The Lord said, "Ye shall be holy
men unto Me"--worthy to be acknowledged by a holy God.
were to be recorded by Moses, and carefully treasured as the foundation of
the national law, and, with the ten precepts which they were given to
illustrate, the condition of the fulfillment of God's promises to Israel.
was now given them from Jehovah: "Behold, I send an Angel before
thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I
have prepared. Beware of Him, and obey His voice, provoke Him not; for He
will not pardon your transgressions: for My name is in Him. But if thou
shalt indeed obey His voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an
enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries."
During all the wanderings of Israel, Christ, in the pillar of cloud and of
fire, was their Leader. While there were types pointing to a Saviour to
come, there was also a present Saviour, who gave commands to Moses for the
people, and who was set forth before them as the only channel of blessing.
descending from the mountain, "Moses came and told the people all the
words of the Lord, and all the judgments:
and all the people answered with
one voice, and said, All the words which the Lord hath said will we
do." This pledge, together with the words of the Lord which it bound
them to obey, was written by Moses in a book.
the ratification of the covenant. An altar was built at the foot of the
mountain, and beside it twelve pillars were set up, "according to the
twelve tribes of Israel," as a testimony to their acceptance of the
covenant. Sacrifices were then presented by young men chosen for the
sprinkled the altar with the blood of the offerings, Moses "took the
book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people." Thus
the conditions of the covenant were solemnly repeated, and all were at
liberty to choose whether or not they would comply with them. They had at
the first promised to obey the voice of God; but they had since heard His
law proclaimed; and its principles had been particularized, that they
might know how much this covenant involved. Again the people answered with
one accord, "All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be
obedient." "When Moses had spoken every precept to all the
people according to the law, he took the blood, . . . and sprinkled both
the book and all the people, saying, This is the blood of the testament
which God hath enjoined unto you." Hebrews 9:19, 20.
were now to be made for the full establishment of the chosen nation under
Jehovah as their king. Moses had received the command, "Come up unto
the Lord, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of
Israel; and worship ye afar off. And Moses alone shall come near the
Lord." While the people worshiped at its foot, these chosen men were
called up into the mount. The seventy elders were to assist Moses in the
government of Israel, and God put upon them His Spirit, and honored them
with a view of His power and greatness. "And they saw the God of
Israel: and there was under His feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire
stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness." They did
not behold the Deity, but they saw the glory of His presence. Before this
they could not have endured such a scene; but the exhibition of God's
power had awed them to repentance; they had been contemplating His glory,
purity, and mercy, until they could approach nearer to Him who was the
subject of their meditations.
"his minister Joshua" were now summoned to meet with God. And as
they were to be some time absent, the leader appointed Aaron and Hur,
assisted by the elders, to act in his stead. "And Moses went up into
the mount, and a cloud covered the mount. And the glory of the Lord abode
upon Mount Sinai." For six days the cloud covered the mountain as a
token of God's special presence; yet there was no revelation of Himself or
communication of His will. During this time Moses remained in waiting for
a summons to the presence chamber of the Most High. He had been directed,
"Come up to Me into the mount, and be there," and though his
patience and obedience were tested, he did not grow weary of watching, or
forsake his post. This period of waiting was to him a time of preparation,
of close self-examination. Even this favored servant of God could not at
once approach into His presence and endure the exhibitions of His glory.
Six days must be employed in devoting himself to God by searching of
heart, meditation, and prayer before he could be prepared for direct
communication with his Maker.
seventh day, which was the Sabbath, Moses was called up into the cloud.
The thick cloud opened in the sight of all Israel, and the glory of the
Lord broke forth like devouring fire. "And Moses went into the midst
of the cloud, and gat him up into the mount; and Moses was in the mount
forty days and forty nights." The forty days' tarry in the mount did
not include the six days of preparation. During the six days Joshua was
with Moses, and together they ate of the manna and drank of "the
brook that descended out of the mount." But Joshua did not enter with
Moses into the cloud. He remained without, and continued to eat and drink
daily while awaiting the return of Moses, but Moses fasted during the
entire forty days.
stay in the mount, Moses received directions for the building of a
sanctuary in which the divine presence would be specially manifested.
"Let them make Me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them"
(Exodus 25:8), was the command of God. For the third time the observance
of the Sabbath was enjoined. "It is a sign between Me and the
children of Israel forever," the Lord declared, "that ye may
know that I am Jehovah that doth sanctify you. Ye shall keep the Sabbath
therefore; for it is holy unto you. . . . Whosoever doeth any work
therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people." Exodus
13, 14. Directions had just been given for the immediate erection
of the tabernacle for the service of God; and now the people might
conclude, because the object had in view was the glory of God, and also
because of their great need of a place of worship, that they would be
justified in working at the building upon the Sabbath. To guard them from
this error, the warning was given. Even the sacredness and urgency of that
special work for God must not lead them to infringe upon His holy rest
the people were to be honored with the abiding presence of their King.
"I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their
God," "and the tabernacle shall be sanctified by My glory"
(Exodus 29:45, 43), was the assurance given to Moses. As the symbol of
God's authority and the embodiment of His will, there was delivered to
Moses a copy of the Decalogue engraved by the finger of God Himself upon
two tables of stone (Deuteronomy 9:10; Exodus 32:15, 16), to be sacredly
enshrined in the sanctuary, which, when made, was to be the visible center
of the nation's worship.
From a race
of slaves the Israelites had been exalted above all peoples to be the
peculiar treasure of the King of kings. God had separated them from the
world, that He might commit to them a sacred trust. He had made them the
depositaries of His law, and He purposed, through them, to preserve among
men the knowledge of Himself. Thus the light of heaven was to shine out to
a world enshrouded in darkness, and a voice was to be heard appealing to
all peoples to turn from their idolatry to serve the living God. If the
Israelites would be true to their trust, they would become a power in the
world. God would be their defense, and He would exalt them above all other
nations. His light and truth would be revealed through them, and they
would stand forth under His wise and holy rule as an example of the
superiority of His worship over every form of idolatry.