Woes on the Pharisees
IT was the last day of Christ's teaching in
the temple. Of the vast throngs that were gathered at Jerusalem, the attention of all had
been attracted to Him; the people had crowded the temple courts, watching the contest that
had been in progress, and they eagerly caught every word that fell from His lips. Never
before had such a scene been witnessed. There stood the young Galilean, bearing no earthly
honor or royal badge. Surrounding Him were priests in their rich apparel, rulers with
robes and badges significant of their exalted station, and scribes with scrolls in their
hands, to which they made frequent reference. Jesus stood calmly before them, with the
dignity of a king. As one invested with the authority of heaven, He looked unflinchingly
upon His adversaries, who had rejected and despised His teachings, and who thirsted for
His life. They had assailed Him in great numbers, but their schemes to ensnare and condemn
Him had been in vain. Challenge after challenge He had met, presenting the pure, bright
truth in contrast to the darkness and errors of the priests and Pharisees. He had set
before these leaders their real condition, and the retribution sure to follow persistence
in their evil deeds. The warning had been faithfully given. Yet another
work remained for
Christ to do. Another purpose was still to be accomplished.
The interest of the people in
Christ and His work had steadily increased. They were charmed with His teaching, but they
were also greatly perplexed. They had respected the priests and rabbis for their
intelligence and apparent piety. In all religious matters they had ever yielded implicit
obedience to their authority. Yet they now saw these men trying to cast discredit upon
Jesus, a teacher whose virtue and knowledge shone forth the brighter from every assault.
They looked upon the lowering countenances of the priests and elders, and there saw
discomfiture and confusion. They marveled that the rulers would not believe on Jesus, when
His teachings were so plain and simple. They themselves knew not what course to take. With
eager anxiety they watched the movements of those whose counsel they had always followed.
In the parables which Christ
had spoken, it was His purpose both to warn the rulers and to instruct the people who were
willing to be taught. But there was need to speak yet more plainly. Through their
reverence for tradition and their blind faith in a corrupt priesthood, the people were
enslaved. These chains Christ must break. The character of the priests, rulers, and
Pharisees must be more fully exposed.
"The scribes and the
Pharisees," He said, "sit in Moses' seat: all therefore whatsoever they bid you
observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do
not." The scribes and Pharisees claimed to be invested with divine authority similar
to that of Moses. They assumed to take his place as expounders of the law and judges of
the people. As such they claimed from the people the utmost deference and obedience. Jesus
bade His hearers do that which the rabbis taught according to the law, but not to follow
their example. They themselves did not practice their own teaching.
And they taught much that was
contrary to the Scriptures. Jesus said, "They bind heavy burdens and grievous to be
borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of
their fingers." The Pharisees enjoined a multitude of regulations, having their
foundation in tradition, and unreasonably restricting personal liberty. And certain
portions of the law they so explained as to impose upon the people observances which they
themselves secretly ignored, and from which, when it served their purpose, they actually
To make a show of their piety
was their constant aim. Nothing was held too sacred to serve this end. To Moses God had
said concerning His commandments, "Thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand,
and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes." Deut. 6:8. These words have a
deep meaning. As the word of God is meditated upon and practiced, the whole man will be
ennobled. In righteous and merciful dealing, the hands will reveal, as a signet, the
principles of God's law. They will be kept clean from bribes, and from all that is corrupt
and deceptive. They will be active in works of love and compassion. The eyes, directed
toward a noble purpose, will be clear and true. The expressive countenance, the speaking
eye, will testify to the blameless character of him who loves and honors the word of God.
But by the Jews of Christ's day all this was undiscerned. The command given to Moses was
construed into a direction that the precepts of Scripture should be worn upon the person.
They were accordingly written upon strips of parchment, and bound in a conspicuous manner
about the head and wrists. But this did not cause the law of God to take a firmer hold of
the mind and heart. These parchments were worn merely as badges,
to attract attention.
They were thought to give the wearers an air of devotion which would command the reverence
of the people. Jesus struck a blow at this vain pretense:
"But all their works
they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders
of their garments, and love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the
synagogues, and greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi. But be
not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren. And
call no man your father upon the earth: for One is your Father, which is in heaven.
Neither be ye called master: for One is your Master, even Christ." In such plain
words the Saviour revealed the selfish ambition that was ever reaching for place and
power, displaying a mock humility, while the heart was filled with avarice and envy. When
persons were invited to a feast, the guests were seated according to their rank, and those
who were given the most honorable place received the first attention and special favors.
The Pharisees were ever scheming to secure these honors. This practice Jesus rebuked.
He also reproved the vanity
shown in coveting the title of rabbi, or master. Such a title, He declared, belonged not
to men, but to Christ. Priests, scribes, and rulers, expounders and administrators of the
law, were all brethren, children of one Father. Jesus impressed upon the people that they
were to give no man a title of honor indicating his control of their conscience or their
If Christ were on earth
today, surrounded by those who bear the title of "Reverend" or "Right
Reverend," would He not repeat His saying, "Neither be ye called masters: for
One is your Master, even Christ"? The Scripture declares of God, "Holy and
reverend is His name." Ps. 111:9. To what human being is such a title befitting? How
little does man reveal of the wisdom and righteousness it indicates! How many of those who
assume this title are misrepresenting the name and character of God! Alas, how often have
worldly ambition, despotism, and the basest sins been hidden under the broidered garments
of a high and holy office! The Saviour continued:
"But he that is greatest
among you shall be your servant. And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he
that shall humble himself shall be exalted." Again and again Christ had taught that
true greatness is measured by moral worth. In the estimation of heaven, greatness of
character consists in living for the welfare of our fellow men, in
doing works of love and
mercy. Christ the King of glory was a servant to fallen man.
"Woe unto you, scribes
and Pharisees, hypocrites," said Jesus; "for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven
against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to
go in." By perverting the Scriptures, the priests and lawyers blinded the minds of
those who would otherwise have received a knowledge of Christ's kingdom, and that inward,
divine life which is essential to true holiness.
"Woe unto you, scribes
and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretense make long
prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation." The Pharisees had great
influence with the people, and of this they took advantage to serve their own interests.
They gained the confidence of pious widows, and then represented it as a duty for them to
devote their property to religious purposes. Having secured control of their money, the
wily schemers used it for their own benefit. To cover their dishonesty, they offered long
prayers in public, and made a great show of piety. This hypocrisy Christ declared would
bring them the greater damnation. The same rebuke falls upon many in our day who make a
high profession of piety. Their lives are stained by selfishness and avarice, yet they
throw over it all a garment of seeming purity, and thus for a time deceive their fellow
men. But they cannot deceive God. He reads every purpose of the heart, and will judge
every man according to his deeds.
Christ unsparingly condemned
abuses, but He was careful not to lessen obligation. He rebuked the selfishness that
extorted and misapplied the widow's gifts. At the same time He commended the widow who
brought her offering for God's treasury. Man's abuse of the gift could not turn God's
blessing from the giver.
Jesus was in the court where
were the treasure chests, and He watched those who came to deposit their gifts. Many of
the rich brought large sums, which they presented with great ostentation. Jesus looked
upon them sadly, but made no comment on their liberal offerings. Presently His countenance
lighted as He saw a poor widow approach hesitatingly, as though fearful of being observed.
As the rich and haughty swept by, to deposit their offerings, she shrank back as if hardly
daring to venture farther. And yet she longed to do something, little though it might be,
for the cause she loved. She looked at the gift in her hand. It was very small in
comparison with the gifts of those around her, yet it was her all.
opportunity, she hurriedly threw in her two mites, and turned to hasten away. But in doing
this she caught the eye of Jesus, which was fastened earnestly upon her.
The Saviour called His
disciples to Him, and bade them mark the widow's poverty. Then His words of commendation
fell upon her ear: "Of a truth I say unto you, that this poor widow hath cast in more
than they all." Tears of joy filled her eyes as she felt that her act was understood
and appreciated. Many would have advised her to keep her pittance for her own use; given
into the hands of the well-fed priests, it would be lost sight of among the many costly
gifts brought to the treasury. But Jesus understood her motive. She believed the service
of the temple to be of God's appointment, and she was anxious to do her utmost to sustain
it. She did what she could, and her act was to be a monument to her memory through all
time, and her joy in eternity. Her heart went with her gift; its value was estimated, not
by the worth of the coin, but by the love to God and the interest in His work that had
prompted the deed.
Jesus said of the poor widow,
She "hath cast in more than they all." The rich had bestowed from their
abundance, many of them to be seen and honored by men. Their large donations had deprived
them of no comfort, or even luxury; they had required no sacrifice, and could not be
compared in value with the widow's mite.
It is the motive that gives
character to our acts, stamping them with ignominy or with high moral worth. Not the great
things which every eye sees and every tongue praises does God account most precious. The
little duties cheerfully done, the little gifts which make no show, and which to human
eyes may appear worthless, often stand highest in His sight. A heart of faith and love is
dearer to God than the most costly gift. The poor widow gave her living to do the little
that she did. She deprived herself of food in order to give those two mites to the cause
she loved. And she did it in faith, believing that her heavenly Father would not overlook
her great need. It was this unselfish spirit and childlike faith that won the Saviour's
Among the poor there are many
who long to show their gratitude to God for His grace and truth. They greatly desire to
share with their more prosperous brethren in sustaining His service. These souls should
not be repulsed. Let them lay up their mites in the bank of heaven. If given from a heart
filled with love for God, these seeming trifles become consecrated gifts, priceless
offerings, which God smiles upon and blesses.
When Jesus said of the widow,
She "hath cast in more than they all," His words were true, not only of the
motive, but of the results of her gift. The "two mites which make a farthing"
have brought to God's treasury an amount of money far greater than the contributions of
those rich Jews. The influence of that little gift has been like a stream, small in its
beginning, but widening and deepening as it flowed down through the ages. In a thousand
ways it has contributed to the relief of the poor and the spread of the gospel. Her
example of self-sacrifice has acted and reacted upon thousands of hearts in every land and
in every age. It has appealed to both the rich and the poor, and their offerings have
swelled the value of her gift. God's blessing upon the widow's mite has made it the source
of great results. So with every gift bestowed and every act performed with a sincere
desire for God's glory. It is linked with the purposes of Omnipotence. Its results for
good no man can measure.
The Saviour continued His
denunciations of the scribes and Pharisees: "Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which
say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the
gold of the temple, he is a debtor! Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold,
or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? and, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is
nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty. Ye fools and
blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift?" The
priests interpreted God's requirements according to their own false and narrow standard.
They presumed to make nice distinctions as to the comparative guilt of various sins,
passing over some lightly, and treating others of perhaps less consequence as
unpardonable. For a money consideration they excused persons from their vows. And for
large sums of money they sometimes passed over aggravated crimes. At the same time these
priests and rulers would in other cases pronounce severe judgment for trivial offenses.
"Woe unto you, scribes
and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted
the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done,
and not to leave the other undone." In these words Christ again condemns the abuse of
sacred obligation. The obligation itself He does not set aside. The tithing system was
ordained by God, and it had been observed from the earliest times. Abraham, the father of
the faithful, paid tithes of all that he possessed. The Jewish rulers recognized the
obligation of tithing, and this was right; but they did not leave the people to carry
their own convictions of duty. Arbitrary rules were laid down for every case. The
requirements had become so complicated that it was impossible for them to be fulfilled.
None knew when their obligations were met. As God gave it, the system was just and
reasonable; but the priests and rabbis had made it a wearisome burden.
All that God commands is of
consequence. Christ recognized the payment of tithes as a duty; but He showed that this
could not excuse the neglect of other duties. The Pharisees were very exact in tithing
garden herbs, such as mint, anise, and rue; this cost them little, and it gave them a
reputation for exactness and sanctity. At the same time their useless restrictions
oppressed the people and destroyed respect for the sacred system of God's own appointing.
They occupied men's minds with trifling distinctions, and turned their attention from
essential truths. The weightier matters of the law, justice, mercy, and truth, were
neglected. "These," Christ said, "ought ye to have done, and not to leave
the other undone."
Other laws had been perverted
by the rabbis in like manner. In the directions given through Moses it was forbidden to
eat any unclean thing. The use of swine's flesh, and the flesh of certain other animals,
was prohibited, as likely to fill the blood with impurities, and to shorten life. But the
Pharisees did not leave these restrictions as God had given them. They went to unwarranted
extremes. Among other things the people were required to strain all the water used, lest
it should contain the smallest insect, which might be classed with the unclean animals.
Jesus, contrasting these trivial exactions with the magnitude of their actual sins, said
to the Pharisees, "Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a
"Woe unto you, scribes
and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchers, which indeed appear
beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness."
As the whited and beautifully decorated tomb concealed the putrefying remains within, so
the outward holiness of the priests and rulers concealed iniquity. Jesus continued:
"Woe unto you, scribes
and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the
sepulchers of the righteous, and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would
not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore ye be witnesses
unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which
killed the prophets." To show
their esteem for the dead prophets, the Jews were very zealous in beautifying their tombs;
but they did not profit by their teachings, nor give heed to their reproofs.
In the days of Christ a
superstitious regard was cherished for the resting places of the dead, and vast sums of
money were lavished upon their decoration. In the sight of God this was idolatry. In their
undue regard for the dead, men showed that they did not love God supremely, nor their
neighbor as themselves. The same idolatry is carried to great lengths today. Many are
guilty of neglecting the widow and the fatherless, the sick and the poor, in order to
build expensive monuments for the dead. Time, money, and labor are freely spent for this
purpose, while duties to the living--duties which Christ has plainly enjoined--are left
The Pharisees built the tombs
of the prophets, and adorned their sepulchers, and said one to another, If we had lived in
the days of our fathers, we would not have united with them in shedding the blood of God's
servants. At the same time they were planning to take the life of His Son. This should be
a lesson to us. It should open our eyes to the power of Satan to deceive the mind that
turns from the light of truth. Many follow in the track of the Pharisees. They revere
those who have died for their faith. They wonder at the blindness of the Jews in rejecting
Christ. Had we lived in His day, they declare, we would gladly have received His teaching;
we would never have been partakers in the guilt of those who rejected the Saviour. But
when obedience to God requires self-denial and humiliation, these very persons stifle
their convictions, and refuse obedience. Thus they manifest the same spirit as did the
Pharisees whom Christ condemned.
Little did the Jews realize
the terrible responsibility involved in rejecting Christ. From the time when the first
innocent blood was shed, when righteous Abel fell by the hand of Cain, the same history
had been repeated, with increasing guilt. In every age prophets had lifted up their voices
against the sins of kings, rulers, and people, speaking the words which God gave them, and
obeying His will at the peril of their lives. From generation to generation there had been
heaping up a terrible punishment for the rejecters of light and truth. This the enemies of
Christ were now drawing down upon their own heads. The sin of the priests and rulers was
greater than that of any preceding generation. By their rejection of the Saviour, they
were making themselves responsible
for the blood of all the righteous men slain from Abel
to Christ. They were about to fill to overflowing their cup of iniquity. And soon it was
to be poured upon their heads in retributive justice. Of this, Jesus warned them:
"That upon you may come
all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the
blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily
I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation."
The scribes and Pharisees who
listened to Jesus knew that His words were true. They knew how the prophet Zacharias had
been slain. While the words of warning from God were upon his lips, a satanic fury seized
the apostate king, and at his command the prophet was put to death. His blood had
imprinted itself upon the very stones of the temple court, and could not be erased; it
remained to bear testimony against apostate Israel. As long as the temple should stand,
there would be the stain of that righteous blood, crying to God to be avenged. As Jesus
referred to these fearful sins, a thrill of horror ran through the multitude.
Looking forward, Jesus
declared that the impenitence of the Jews and their intolerance of God's servants would be
the same in the future as it had been in the past:
"Wherefore, behold, I
send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and
crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from
city to city." Prophets and wise men, full of faith and the Holy Ghost,--Stephen,
James, and many others,--would be condemned and slain. With hand uplifted to heaven, and a
divine light enshrouding His person, Christ spoke as a judge to those before Him. His
voice, that had so often been heard in gentleness and entreaty, was now heard in rebuke
and condemnation. The listeners shuddered. Never was the impression made by His words and
His look to be effaced.
Christ's indignation was
directed against the hypocrisy, the gross sins, by which men were destroying their own
souls, deceiving the people and dishonoring God. In the specious deceptive reasoning of
the priests and rulers He discerned the working of satanic agencies. Keen and searching
had been His denunciation of sin; but He spoke no words of retaliation. He had a holy
wrath against the prince of darkness; but He manifested no irritated temper. So the
Christian who lives in harmony with God, possessing the sweet attributes of love and
mercy, will feel a righteous
indignation against sin; but he will not be roused by passion
to revile those who revile him. Even in meeting those who are moved by a power from
beneath to maintain falsehood, in Christ he will still preserve calmness and
Divine pity marked the
countenance of the Son of God as He cast one lingering look upon the temple and then upon
His hearers. In a voice choked by deep anguish of heart and bitter tears He exclaimed,
"O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are
sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen
gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!" This is the separation
struggle. In the lamentation of Christ the very heart of God is pouring itself forth. It
is the mysterious farewell of the long-suffering love of the Deity.
Pharisees and Sadducees were
alike silenced. Jesus summoned His disciples, and prepared to leave the temple, not as one
defeated and forced from the presence of his adversaries, but as one whose work was
accomplished. He retired a victor from the contest.
The gems of truth that fell
from Christ's lips on that eventful day were treasured in many hearts. For them new
thoughts started into life, new aspirations were awakened, and a new history began. After
the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ, these persons came to the front, and fulfilled
their divine commission with a wisdom and zeal corresponding to the greatness of the work.
They bore a message that appealed to the hearts of men, weakening the old superstitions
that had long dwarfed the lives of thousands. Before their testimony human theories and
philosophies became as idle fables. Mighty were the results flowing from the words of the
Saviour to that wondering, awestruck crowd in the temple at Jerusalem.
But Israel as a nation had
divorced herself from God. The natural branches of the olive tree were broken off. Looking
for the last time upon the interior of the temple, Jesus said with mournful pathos,
"Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see
Me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord."
Hitherto He had called the temple His Father's house; but now, as the Son of God should
pass out from those walls, God's presence would be withdrawn forever from the temple built
to His glory. Henceforth its ceremonies would be meaningless, its services a mockery.