What is the Sanctuary?
THE scripture which above all others had
been both the foundation and the central pillar of the advent faith was the declaration:
"Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be
cleansed." Daniel 8:14. These had been familiar words to all believers in the Lord's
soon coming. By the lips of thousands was this prophecy repeated as the watchword of their
faith. All felt that upon the events therein foretold depended their brightest
expectations and most cherished hopes. These prophetic days had been shown to terminate in
the autumn of 1844. In common with the rest of the Christian world, Adventists then held
that the earth, or some portion of it, was the sanctuary. They understood that the
cleansing of the sanctuary was the purification of the earth by the fires of the last
great day, and that this would take place at the second advent. Hence the conclusion that
Christ would return to the earth in 1844.
But the appointed time had
passed, and the Lord had not appeared. The believers knew that God's word could not fail;
their interpretation of the prophecy must be at fault; but where was the mistake? Many
rashly cut the knot of difficulty by denying that the 2300 days ended in 1844. No reason
could be given for this except that Christ had not come at the time they expected Him.
They argued that if the prophetic days had ended in 1844, Christ would then have returned
cleanse the sanctuary by the purification of the earth by fire; and that since He had
not come, the days could not have ended.
To accept this conclusion was
to renounce the former reckoning of the prophetic periods. The 2300 days had been found to
begin when the commandment of Artaxerxes for the restoration and building of Jerusalem
went into effect, in the autumn of 457 B.C. Taking this as the starting point, there was
perfect harmony in the application of all the events foretold in the explanation of that
period in Daniel 9:25-27. Sixty-nine weeks, the first 483 of the 2300 years, were to reach
to the Messiah, the Anointed One; and Christ's baptism and anointing by the Holy Spirit,
A.D. 27, exactly fulfilled the specification. In the midst of the seventieth week, Messiah
was to be cut off. Three and a half years after His baptism, Christ was crucified, in the
spring of A.D. 31. The seventy weeks, or 490 years, were to pertain especially to the
Jews. At the expiration of this period the nation sealed its rejection of Christ by the
persecution of His disciples, and the apostles turned to the Gentiles, A.D. 34. The first
490 years of the 2300 having then ended, 1810 years would remain. From A.D. 34, 1810 years
extend to 1844. "Then," said the angel, "shall the sanctuary be
cleansed." All the preceding specifications of the prophecy had been unquestionably
fulfilled at the time appointed.
With this reckoning, all was
clear and harmonious, except that it was not seen that any event answering to the
cleansing of the sanctuary had taken place in 1844. To deny that the days ended at that
time was to involve the whole question in confusion, and to renounce positions which had
been established by unmistakable fulfillments of prophecy.
But God had led His people in
the great advent movement; His power and glory had attended the work, and He would not
permit it to end in darkness and disappointment, to be reproached as a false and fanatical
excitement. He would not leave His word involved in doubt and uncertainty.
abandoned their former reckoning of the prophetic periods and denied the correctness of
the movement based thereon, others were unwilling to renounce points of faith and
experience that were sustained by the Scriptures and by the witness of the Spirit of God.
They believed that they had adopted sound principles of interpretation in their study of
the prophecies, and that it was their duty to hold fast the truths already gained, and to
continue the same course of Biblical research. With earnest prayer they reviewed their
position and studied the Scriptures to discover their mistake. As they could see no error
in their reckoning of the prophetic periods, they were led to examine more closely the
subject of the sanctuary.
In their investigation they
learned that there is no Scripture evidence sustaining the popular view that the earth is
the sanctuary; but they found in the Bible a full explanation of the subject of the
sanctuary, its nature, location, and services; the testimony of the sacred writers being
so clear and ample as to place the matter beyond all question. The apostle Paul, in the
Epistle to the Hebrews, says: "Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of
divine service, and a worldly sanctuary. For there was a tabernacle made; the first,
wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the shewbread; which is called the
sanctuary. And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the holiest of all;
which had the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant overlaid round about with gold,
wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of
the covenant; and over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercy seat." Hebrews
The sanctuary to which Paul
here refers was the tabernacle built by Moses at the command of God as the earthly
dwelling place of the Most High. "Let them make Me a sanctuary; that I may dwell
among them" (Exodus 25:8), was the direction given to Moses while in the mount with
God. The Israelites were journeying through the wilderness,
and the tabernacle was so
constructed that it could be removed from place to place; yet it was a structure of great
magnificence. Its walls consisted of upright boards heavily plated with gold and set in
sockets of silver, while the roof was formed of a series of curtains, or coverings, the
outer of skins, the innermost of fine linen beautifully wrought with figures of cherubim.
Besides the outer court, which contained the altar of burnt offering, the tabernacle
itself consisted of two apartments called the holy and the most holy place, separated by a
rich and beautiful curtain, or veil; a similar veil closed the entrance to the first
In the holy place was the
candlestick, on the south, with its seven lamps giving light to the sanctuary both by day
and by night; on the north stood the table of shewbread; and before the veil separating
the holy from the most holy was the golden altar of incense, from which the cloud of
fragrance, with the prayers of Israel, was daily ascending before God.
In the most holy place stood
the ark, a chest of precious wood overlaid with gold, the depository of the two tables of
stone upon which God had inscribed the law of Ten Commandments. Above the ark, and forming
the cover to the sacred chest, was the mercy seat, a magnificent piece of workmanship,
surmounted by two cherubim, one at each end, and all wrought of solid gold. In this
apartment the divine presence was manifested in the cloud of glory between the cherubim.
After the settlement of the
Hebrews in Canaan, the tabernacle was replaced by the temple of Solomon, which, though a
permanent structure and upon a larger scale, observed the same proportions, and was
similarly furnished. In this form the sanctuary existed--except while it lay in ruins in
Daniel's time--until its destruction by the Romans, in A.D. 70.
This is the only sanctuary
that ever existed on the earth, of which the Bible gives any information. This was
by Paul to be the sanctuary of the first covenant. But has the new covenant no
Turning again to the book of
Hebrews, the seekers for truth found that the existence of a second, or new-covenant
sanctuary, was implied in the words of Paul already quoted: "Then verily the first
covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary." And the use
of the word "also" intimates that Paul has before made mention of this
sanctuary. Turning back to the beginning of the previous chapter, they read: "Now of
the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an High Priest, who is set
on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; a Minister of the
sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man." Hebrews
Here is revealed the
sanctuary of the new covenant. The sanctuary of the first covenant was pitched by man,
built by Moses; this is pitched by the Lord, not by man. In that sanctuary the earthly
priests performed their service; in this, Christ, our great High Priest, ministers at
God's right hand. One sanctuary was on earth, the other is in heaven.
Further, the tabernacle built
by Moses was made after a pattern. The Lord directed him: "According to all that I
show thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments
thereof, even so shall ye make it." And again the charge was given, "Look that
thou make them after their pattern, which was showed thee in the mount." Exodus 25:9,
40. And Paul says that the first tabernacle "was a figure for the time then present,
in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices;" that its holy places were
"patterns of things in the heavens;" that the priests who offered gifts
according to the law served "unto the example and shadow of heavenly things,"
and that "Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the
figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for
us." Hebrews 9:9, 23; 8:5; 9:24.
The sanctuary in heaven, in
which Jesus ministers in our behalf, is the great original, of which the sanctuary built
by Moses was a copy. God placed His Spirit upon the builders of the earthly sanctuary. The
artistic skill displayed in its construction was a manifestation of divine wisdom. The
walls had the appearance of massive gold, reflecting in every direction the light of the
seven lamps of the golden candlestick. The table of shewbread and the altar of incense
glittered like burnished gold. The gorgeous curtain which formed the ceiling, inwrought
with figures of angels in blue and purple and scarlet, added to the beauty of the scene.
And beyond the second veil was the holy Shekinah, the visible manifestation of God's
glory, before which none but the high priest could enter and live.
The matchless splendor of the
earthly tabernacle reflected to human vision the glories of that heavenly temple where
Christ our forerunner ministers for us before the throne of God. The abiding place of the
King of kings, where thousand thousands minister unto Him, and ten thousand times ten
thousand stand before Him (Daniel 7:10); that temple, filled with the glory of the eternal
throne, where seraphim, its shining guardians, veil their faces in adoration, could find,
in the most magnificent structure ever reared by human hands, but a faint reflection of
its vastness and glory. Yet important truths concerning the heavenly sanctuary and the
great work there carried forward for man's redemption were taught by the earthly sanctuary
and its services.
The holy places of the
sanctuary in heaven are represented by the two apartments in the sanctuary on earth. As in
vision the apostle John was granted a view of the temple of God in heaven, he beheld there
"seven lamps of fire burning before the throne." Revelation 4:5. He saw an angel
"having a golden censer; and there was given unto him much incense, that he should
offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which was before the
throne." Revelation 8:3. Here the prophet was permitted to behold the first apartment
of the sanctuary in heaven; and he saw there the "seven lamps of fire" and
"the golden altar," represented by the golden candlestick and the altar of
incense in the sanctuary on earth. Again, "the temple of God was opened"
(Revelation 11:19), and he looked within the inner veil, upon the holy of holies. Here he
beheld "the ark of His testament," represented by the sacred chest constructed
by Moses to contain the law of God.
Thus those who were studying
the subject found indisputable proof of the existence of a sanctuary in heaven. Moses made
the earthly sanctuary after a pattern which was shown him. Paul teaches that that pattern
was the true sanctuary which is in heaven. And John testifies that he saw it in heaven.
In the temple in heaven, the
dwelling place of God, His throne is established in righteousness and judgment. In the
most holy place is His law, the great rule of right by which all mankind are tested. The
ark that enshrines the tables of the law is covered with the mercy seat, before which
Christ pleads His blood in the sinner's behalf. Thus is represented the union of justice
and mercy in the plan of human redemption. This union infinite wisdom alone could devise
and infinite power accomplish; it is a union that fills all heaven with wonder and
adoration. The cherubim of the earthly sanctuary, looking reverently down upon the mercy
seat, represent the interest with which the heavenly host contemplate the work of
redemption. This is the mystery of mercy into which angels desire to look--that God can be
just while He justifies the repenting sinner and renews His intercourse with the fallen
race; that Christ could stoop to raise unnumbered multitudes from the abyss of ruin and
clothe them with the spotless garments of His own righteousness to unite with angels who
have never fallen and to dwell forever in the presence of God.
The work of Christ as man's
intercessor is presented in that beautiful prophecy of Zechariah concerning Him
"whose name is the Branch." Says the prophet: "He shall
build the temple of
the Lord; and He shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon His [the Father's]
throne; and He shall be a priest upon His throne: and the counsel of peace shall be
between Them both." Zechariah 6:12, 13.
"He shall build the
temple of the Lord." By His sacrifice and mediation Christ is both the foundation and
the builder of the church of God. The apostle Paul points to Him as "the chief
Cornerstone; in whom all the building fitly framed together groweth into an holy temple in
the Lord: in whom ye also," he says, "are builded together for an habitation of
God through the Spirit." Ephesians 2:20-22.
"He shall bear the
glory." To Christ belongs the glory of redemption for the fallen race. Through the
eternal ages, the song of the ransomed ones will be: "Unto Him that loved us, and
washed us from our sins in His own blood, . . . to Him be glory and dominion for ever and
ever." Revelation 1:5, 6.
He "shall sit and rule
upon His throne; and He shall be a priest upon His throne." Not now "upon the
throne of His glory;" the kingdom of glory has not yet been ushered in. Not until His
work as a mediator shall be ended will God "give unto Him the throne of His father
David," a kingdom of which "there shall be no end." Luke 1:32, 33. As a
priest, Christ is now set down with the Father in His throne. Revelation 3:21. Upon the
throne with the eternal, self-existent One is He who "hath borne our griefs, and
carried our sorrows," who "was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without
sin," that He might be "able to succor them that are tempted." "If any
man sin, we have an advocate with the Father." Isaiah 53:4; Hebrews 4:15; 2:18; 1
John 2:1. His intercession is that of a pierced and broken body, of a spotless life. The
wounded hands, the pierced side, the marred feet, plead for fallen man, whose redemption
was purchased at such infinite cost.
"And the counsel of
peace shall be between Them both." The love of the Father, no less than of the Son,
is the fountain of salvation for the lost race. Said Jesus to His disciples before
away: "I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you: for the Father
Himself loveth you." John 16:26, 27. God was "in Christ, reconciling the world
unto Himself." 2 Corinthians 5:19. And in the ministration in the sanctuary above,
"the counsel of peace shall be between Them both." "God so loved the world,
that He gave His only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but
have everlasting life." John 3:16.
The question, What is the
sanctuary? is clearly answered in the Scriptures. The term "sanctuary," as used
in the Bible, refers, first, to the tabernacle built by Moses, as a pattern of heavenly
things; and, secondly, to the "true tabernacle" in heaven, to which the earthly
sanctuary pointed. At the death of Christ the typical service ended. The "true
tabernacle" in heaven is the sanctuary of the new covenant. And as the prophecy of
Daniel 8:14 is fulfilled in this dispensation, the sanctuary to which it refers must be
the sanctuary of the new covenant. At the termination of the 2300 days, in 1844, there had
been no sanctuary on earth for many centuries. Thus the prophecy, "Unto two thousand
and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed," unquestionably points
to the sanctuary in heaven.
But the most important
question remains to be answered: What is the cleansing of the sanctuary? That there was
such a service in connection with the earthly sanctuary is stated in the Old Testament
Scriptures. But can there be anything in heaven to be cleansed? In Hebrews 9 the cleansing
of both the earthly and the heavenly sanctuary is plainly taught. "Almost all things
are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission. It was
therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with
these [the blood of animals]; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices
than these" (Hebrews 9:22, 23), even the precious blood of Christ.
The cleansing, both in the
typical and in the real service, must be accomplished with blood: in the former, with the
blood of animals; in the latter, with the blood of Christ. Paul states, as the reason why
this cleansing must be performed with blood, that without shedding of blood is no
remission . Remission, or putting away of sin, is the work to be accomplished. But how
could there be sin connected with the sanctuary, either in heaven or upon the earth? This
may be learned by reference to the symbolic service; for the priests who officiated on
earth, served "unto the example and shadow of heavenly things." Hebrews 8:5.
The ministration of the
earthly sanctuary consisted of two divisions; the priests ministered daily in the holy
place, while once a year the high priest performed a special work of atonement in the most
holy, for the cleansing of the sanctuary. Day by day the repentant sinner brought his
offering to the door of the tabernacle and, placing his hand upon the victim's head,
confessed his sins, thus in figure transferring them from himself to the innocent
sacrifice. The animal was then slain. "Without shedding of blood," says the
apostle, there is no remission of sin. "The life of the flesh is in the blood."
Leviticus 17:11. The broken law of God demanded the life of the transgressor. The blood,
representing the forfeited life of the sinner, whose guilt the victim bore, was carried by
the priest into the holy place and sprinkled before the veil, behind which was the ark
containing the law that the sinner had transgressed. By this ceremony the sin was, through
the blood, transferred in figure to the sanctuary. In some cases the blood was not taken
into the holy place; but the flesh was then to be eaten by the priest, as Moses directed
the sons of Aaron, saying: "God hath given it you to bear the iniquity of the
congregation." Leviticus 10:17. Both ceremonies alike symbolized the transfer of the
sin from the penitent to the sanctuary.
Such was the work that went
on, day by day, throughout the year. The sins of Israel were thus transferred to the
sanctuary, and a special work became necessary for their removal. God commanded that an
atonement be made for each of the
sacred apartments. "He shall make an atonement for
the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their
transgressions in all their sins: and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the
congregation, that remaineth among them in the midst of their uncleanness." An
atonement was also to be made for the altar, to "cleanse it, and hallow if from the
uncleanness of the children of Israel." Leviticus 16:16, 19.
Once a year, on the great Day
of Atonement, the priest entered the most holy place for the cleansing of the sanctuary.
The work there performed completed the yearly round of ministration. On the Day of
Atonement two kids of the goats were brought to the door of the tabernacle, and lots were
cast upon them, "one lot for the Lord, and the other lot for the scapegoat."
Verse 8. The goat upon which fell the lot for the Lord was to be slain as a sin offering
for the people. And the priest was to bring his blood within the veil and sprinkle it upon
the mercy seat and before the mercy seat. The blood was also to be sprinkled upon the
altar of incense that was before the veil.
"And Aaron shall lay
both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of
the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon
the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the
wilderness: and the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not
inhabited." Verses 21, 22. The scapegoat came no more into the camp of Israel, and
the man who led him away was required to wash himself and his clothing with water before
returning to the camp.
The whole ceremony was
designed to impress the Israelites with the holiness of God and His abhorrence of sin;
and, further, to show them that they could not come in contact with sin without becoming
polluted. Every man was required to afflict his soul while this work of atonement was
going forward. All business was to be laid aside, and the
whole congregation of Israel
were to spend the day in solemn humiliation before God, with prayer, fasting, and deep
searching of heart.
Important truths concerning
the atonement are taught by the typical service. A substitute was accepted in the sinner's
stead; but the sin was not canceled by the blood of the victim. A means was thus provided
by which it was transferred to the sanctuary. By the offering of blood the sinner
acknowledged the authority of the law, confessed his guilt in transgression, and expressed
his desire for pardon through faith in a Redeemer to come; but he was not yet entirely
released from the condemnation of the law. On the Day of Atonement the high priest, having
taken an offering from the congregation, went into the most holy place with the blood of
this offering, and sprinkled it upon the mercy seat, directly over the law, to make
satisfaction for its claims. Then, in his character of mediator, he took the sins upon
himself and bore them from the sanctuary. Placing his hands upon the head of the
scapegoat, he confessed over him all these sins, thus in figure transferring them from
himself to the goat. The goat then bore them away, and they were regarded as forever
separated from the people.
Such was the service
performed "unto the example and shadow of heavenly things." And what was done in
type in the ministration of the earthly sanctuary is done in reality in the ministration
of the heavenly sanctuary. After His ascension our Saviour began His work as our high
priest. Says Paul: "Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which
are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God
for us." Hebrews 9:24.
The ministration of the
priest throughout the year in the first apartment of the sanctuary, "within the
veil" which formed the door and separated the holy place from the outer court,
represents the work of ministration upon which Christ entered at His ascension. It was the
work of the priest in the
daily ministration to present before God the blood of the sin
offering, also the incense which ascended with the prayers of Israel. So did Christ plead
His blood before the Father in behalf of sinners, and present before Him also, with the
precious fragrance of His own righteousness, the prayers of penitent believers. Such was
the work of ministration in the first apartment of the sanctuary in heaven.
Thither the faith of Christ's
disciples followed Him as He ascended from their sight. Here their hopes centered,
"which hope we have," said Paul, "as an anchor of the soul, both sure and
steadfast, and which entereth into that within the veil; whither the forerunner is for us
entered, even Jesus, made an high priest forever." "Neither by the blood of
goats and calves, but by His own blood He entered in once into the holy place, having
obtained eternal redemption for us." Hebrews 6:19, 20; 9:12.
For eighteen centuries this
work of ministration continued in the first apartment of the sanctuary. The blood of
Christ, pleaded in behalf of penitent believers, secured their pardon and acceptance with
the Father, yet their sins still remained upon the books of record. As in the typical
service there was a work of atonement at the close of the year, so before Christ's work
for the redemption of men is completed there is a work of atonement for the removal of sin
from the sanctuary. This is the service which began when the 2300 days ended. At that
time, as foretold by Daniel the prophet, our High Priest entered the most holy, to perform
the last division of His solemn work--to cleanse the sanctuary.
As anciently the sins of the
people were by faith placed upon the sin offering and through its blood transferred, in
figure, to the earthly sanctuary, so in the new covenant the sins of the repentant are by
faith placed upon Christ and transferred, in fact, to the heavenly sanctuary. And as the
typical cleansing of the earthly was accomplished by
the removal of the sins by which it
had been polluted, so the actual cleansing of the heavenly is to be accomplished by the
removal, or blotting out, of the sins which are there recorded. But before this can be
accomplished, there must be an examination of the books of record to determine who,
through repentance of sin and faith in Christ, are entitled to the benefits of His
atonement. The cleansing of the sanctuary therefore involves a work of investigation--a
work of judgment. This work must be performed prior to the coming of Christ to redeem His
people; for when He comes, His reward is with Him to give to every man according to his
works. Revelation 22:12.
Thus those who followed in
the light of the prophetic word saw that, instead of coming to the earth at the
termination of the 2300 days in 1844, Christ then entered the most holy place of the
heavenly sanctuary to perform the closing work of atonement preparatory to His coming.
It was seen, also, that while
the sin offering pointed to Christ as a sacrifice, and the high priest represented Christ
as a mediator, the scapegoat typified Satan, the author of sin, upon whom the sins of the
truly penitent will finally be placed. When the high priest, by virtue of the blood of the
sin offering, removed the sins from the sanctuary, he placed them upon the scapegoat. When
Christ, by virtue of His own blood, removes the sins of His people from the heavenly
sanctuary at the close of His ministration, He will place them upon Satan, who, in the
execution of the judgment, must bear the final penalty. The scapegoat was sent away into a
land not inhabited, never to come again into the congregation of Israel. So will Satan be
forever banished from the presence of God and His people, and he will be blotted from
existence in the final destruction of sin and sinners.