BEFORE the entrance of sin, Adam enjoyed
open communion with his Maker; but since man separated himself from God by transgression,
the human race has been cut off from this high privilege. By the plan of redemption,
however, a way has been opened whereby the inhabitants of the earth may still have
connection with heaven. God has communicated with men by His Spirit, and divine light has
been imparted to the world by revelations to His chosen servants. "Holy men of God
spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." 2 Peter 1:21.
During the first twenty-five
hundred years of human history, there was no written revelation. Those who had been taught
of God, communicated their knowledge to others, and it was handed down from father to son,
through successive generations. The preparation of the written word began in the time of
Moses. Inspired revelations were then embodied in an inspired book. This work continued
during the long period of sixteen hundred years--from Moses, the historian of creation and
the law, to John, the recorder of the most sublime truths of the gospel.
The Bible points to God as
its author; yet it was written by human hands; and in the varied style of its different
books it presents the characteristics of the several writers. The truths revealed are all
"given by inspiration of God" (2 Timothy 3:16); yet they are expressed in the
words of men. The Infinite One by His Holy Spirit has shed light into the minds and hearts
of His servants. He has given dreams and visions, symbols and figures; and those to whom
the truth was thus revealed have themselves embodied the thought in human language.
The Ten Commandments were
spoken by God Himself, and were written by His own hand. They are of divine,
and not of
human composition. But the Bible, with its God-given truths expressed in the language of
men, presents a union of the divine and the human. Such a union existed in the nature of
Christ, who was the Son of God and the Son of man. Thus it is true of the Bible, as it was
of Christ, that "the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us." John 1:14.
Written in different ages, by
men who differed widely in rank and occupation, and in mental and spiritual endowments,
the books of the Bible present a wide contrast in style, as well as a diversity in the
nature of the subjects unfolded. Different forms of expression are employed by different
writers; often the same truth is more strikingly presented by one than by another. And as
several writers present a subject under varied aspects and relations, there may appear, to
the superficial, careless, or prejudiced reader, to be discrepancy or contradiction, where
the thoughtful, reverent student, with clearer insight, discerns the underlying harmony.
As presented through
different individuals, the truth is brought out in its varied aspects. One writer is more
strongly impressed with one phase of the subject; he grasps those points that harmonize
with his experience or with his power of perception and appreciation; another seizes upon
a different phase; and each, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, presents what is most
forcibly impressed upon his own mind--a different aspect of the truth in each, but a
perfect harmony through all. And the truths thus revealed unite to form a perfect whole,
adapted to meet the wants of men in all the circumstances and experiences of life.
God has been pleased to
communicate His truth to the world by human agencies, and He Himself, by His Holy Spirit,
qualified men and enabled them to do this work. He guided the mind in the selection of
what to speak and what to write. The treasure was entrusted to earthen vessels, yet it is,
nonetheless, from Heaven. The testimony is
conveyed through the imperfect expression of
human language, yet it is the testimony of God; and the obedient, believing child of God
beholds in it the glory of a divine power, full of grace and truth.
In His word, God has
committed to men the knowledge necessary for salvation. The Holy Scriptures are to be
accepted as an authoritative, infallible revelation of His will. They are the standard of
character, the revealer of doctrines, and the test of experience. "Every scripture
inspired of God is also profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for
instruction which is in righteousness; that the man of God may be complete, furnished
completely unto every good work." 2 Timothy 3:16, 17, R.V.
Yet the fact that God has
revealed His will to men through His word, has not rendered needless the continued
presence and guiding of the Holy Spirit. On the contrary, the Spirit was promised by our
Saviour, to open the word to His servants, to illuminate and apply its teachings. And
since it was the Spirit of God that inspired the Bible, it is impossible that the teaching
of the Spirit should ever be contrary to that of the word.
The Spirit was not given--nor
can it ever be bestowed-- to supersede the Bible; for the Scriptures explicitly state that
the word of God is the standard by which all teaching and experience must be tested. Says
the apostle John, "Believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of
God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world." 1 John 4:1. And Isaiah
declares, "To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word,
it is because there is no light in them." Isaiah 8:20.
Great reproach has been cast
upon the work of the Holy Spirit by the errors of a class that, claiming its
enlightenment, profess to have no further need of guidance from the word of God. They are
governed by impressions which they regard as the voice of God in the soul. But the spirit
that controls them is not the Spirit of God. This following of
impressions, to the
neglect of the Scriptures, can lead only to confusion, to deception and ruin. It serves
only to further the designs of the evil one. Since the ministry of the Holy Spirit is of
vital importance to the church of Christ, it is one of the devices of Satan, through the
errors of extremists and fanatics, to cast contempt upon the work of the Spirit and cause
the people of God to neglect this source of strength which our Lord Himself has provided.
In harmony with the word of
God, His Spirit was to continue its work throughout the period of the gospel dispensation.
During the ages while the Scriptures of both the Old and the New Testament were being
given, the Holy Spirit did not cease to communicate light to individual minds, apart from
the revelations to be embodied in the Sacred Canon. The Bible itself relates how, through
the Holy Spirit, men received warning, reproof, counsel, and instruction, in matters in no
way relating to the giving of the Scriptures. And mention is made of prophets in different
ages, of whose utterances nothing is recorded. In like manner, after the close of the
canon of the Scripture, the Holy Spirit was still to continue its work, to enlighten,
warn, and comfort the children of God.
Jesus promised His disciples,
"The Comforter which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in My name, He
shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have
said unto you." "When He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you into
all truth: . . . and He will show you things to come." John 14:26; 16:13. Scripture
plainly teaches that these promises, so far from being limited to apostolic days, extend
to the church of Christ in all ages. The Saviour assures His followers, "I am with
you alway, even unto the end of the world." Matthew 28:20. And Paul declares that the
gifts and manifestations of the Spirit were set in the church "for the perfecting of
the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: till we
all come in the unity of the faith, and
of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect
man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ." Ephesians 4:12, 13.
For the believers at Ephesus
the apostle prayed, "That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may
give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him: the eyes of
your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of His calling,
and . . . what is the exceeding greatness of His power to usward who believe."
Ephesians 1:17-19. The ministry of the divine Spirit in enlightening the understanding and
opening to the mind the deep things of God's holy word, was the blessing which Paul thus
besought for the Ephesian church.
After the wonderful
manifestation of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost, Peter exhorted the people to
repentance and baptism in the name of Christ, for the remission of their sins; and he
said: "Ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For the promise is unto you, and
to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall
call." Acts 2:38, 39.
In immediate connection with
the scenes of the great day of God, the Lord by the prophet Joel has promised a special
manifestation of His Spirit. Joel 2:28. This prophecy received a partial fulfillment in
the outpouring of the Spirit on the Day of Pentecost; but it will reach its full
accomplishment in the manifestation of divine grace which will attend the closing work of
The great controversy between
good and evil will increase in intensity to the very close of time. In all ages the wrath
of Satan has been manifested against the church of Christ; and God has bestowed His grace
and Spirit upon His people to strengthen them to stand against the power of the evil one.
When the apostles of Christ were to bear His gospel to the world and to record it for all
future ages, they were especially endowed with the enlightenment of the Spirit. But as the
church approaches her final deliverance, Satan is to work with greater power. He comes
down "having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time."
Revelation 12:12. He will work "with all power and signs and lying wonders." 2
Thessalonians 2:9. For six thousand years that mastermind that once was highest among the
angels of God has been wholly bent to the work of deception and ruin. And all the depths
of satanic skill and subtlety acquired, all the cruelty developed, during these struggles
of the ages, will be brought to bear against God's people in the final conflict. And in
this time of peril the followers of Christ are to bear to the world the warning of the
Lord's second advent; and a people are to be prepared to stand before Him at His coming,
"without spot, and blameless." 2 Peter 3:14. At this time the special endowment
of divine grace and power is not less needful to the church than in apostolic days.
Through the illumination of
the Holy Spirit, the scenes of the long-continued conflict between good and evil have been
opened to the writer of these pages. From time to time I have been permitted to behold the
working, in different ages, of the great controversy between Christ, the Prince of life,
the Author of our salvation, and Satan, the prince of evil, the author of sin, the first
transgressor of God's holy law. Satan's enmity against Christ has been manifested against
His followers. The same hatred of the principles of God's law, the same policy of
deception, by which error is made to appear as truth, by which human laws are substituted
for the law of God, and men are led to worship the creature rather than the Creator, may
be traced in all the history of the past. Satan's efforts to misrepresent the character of
God, to cause men to cherish a false conception of the Creator, and thus to regard Him
with fear and hate rather than with love; his endeavors to set aside the divine law,
leading the people to think themselves free from its requirements; and his persecution of
those who dare to resist his deceptions, have been steadfastly pursued in all ages. They
may be traced
in the history of patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, of martyrs and
In the great final conflict,
Satan will employ the same policy, manifest the same spirit, and work for the same end as
in all preceding ages. That which has been, will be, except that the coming struggle will
be marked with a terrible intensity such as the world has never witnessed. Satan's
deceptions will be more subtle, his assaults more determined. If it were possible, he
would lead astray the elect. Mark 13:22, R.V.
As the Spirit of God has
opened to my mind the great truths of His word, and the scenes of the past and the future,
I have been bidden to make known to others that which has thus been revealed--to trace the
history of the controversy in past ages, and especially so to present it as to shed a
light on the fast-approaching struggle of the future. In pursuance of this purpose, I have
endeavored to select and group together events in the history of the church in such a
manner as to trace the unfolding of the great testing truths that at different periods
have been given to the world, that have excited the wrath of Satan, and the enmity of a
world-loving church, and that have been maintained by the witness of those who "loved
not their lives unto the death."
In these records we may see a
foreshadowing of the conflict before us. Regarding them in the light of God's word, and by
the illumination of His Spirit, we may see unveiled the devices of the wicked one, and the
dangers which they must shun who would be found "without fault" before the Lord
at His coming.
The great events which have
marked the progress of reform in past ages are matters of history, well known and
universally acknowledged by the Protestant world; they are facts which none can gainsay.
This history I have presented briefly, in accordance with the scope of the book, and the
brevity which must necessarily be observed, the facts having been condensed into as little
space as seemed consistent with
a proper understanding of their application. In some
cases where a historian has so grouped together events as to afford, in brief, a
comprehensive view of the subject, or has summarized details in a convenient manner, his
words have been quoted; but in some instances no specific credit has been given, since the
quotations are not given for the purpose of citing that writer as authority, but because
his statement affords a ready and forcible presentation of the subject. In narrating the
experience and views of those carrying forward the work of reform in our own time, similar
use has been made of their published works.
It is not so much the object
of this book to present new truths concerning the struggles of former times, as to bring
out facts and principles which have a bearing on coming events. Yet viewed as a part of
the controversy between the forces of light and darkness, all these records of the past
are seen to have a new significance; and through them a light is cast upon the future,
illumining the pathway of those who, like the reformers of past ages, will be called, even
at the peril of all earthly good, to witness "for the word of God, and for the
testimony of Jesus Christ."
To unfold the scenes of the
great controversy between truth and error; to reveal the wiles of Satan, and the means by
which he may be successfully resisted; to present a satisfactory solution of the great
problem of evil, shedding such a light upon the origin and the final disposition of sin as
to make fully manifest the justice and benevolence of God in all His dealings with His
creatures; and to show the holy, unchanging nature of His law, is the object of this book.
That through its influence souls may be delivered from the power of darkness, and become
"partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light," to the praise of Him who
loved us, and gave Himself for us, is the earnest prayer of the writer.