This chapter is based on
the following verses:
UNTO certain which trusted in themselves
that they were righteous, and despised others," Christ spoke the parable of the
Pharisee and the publican. The Pharisee goes up to the temple to worship, not because he
feels that he is a sinner in need of pardon, but because he thinks himself righteous and
hopes to win commendation. His worship he regards as an act of merit that will recommend
him to God. At the same time it will give the people a high opinion of his piety. He hopes
to secure favor with both God and man. His worship is prompted by self-interest.
And he is full of
self-praise. He looks it, he walks it, he prays it. Drawing apart from others as if to
say, "Come not near to me; for I am holier than thou" (Isa. 65:5), he stands and
prays "with himself." Wholly self-satisfied, he thinks that God and men regard
him with the same complacency.
"God, I thank
thee," he says, "that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust,
adulterers, or even as this
publican." He judges his character, not by the holy
character of God, but by the character of other men. His mind is turned away from God to
humanity. This is the secret of his self-satisfaction.
He proceeds to recount his
good deeds: "I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that I possess." The
religion of the Pharisee does not touch the soul. He is not seeking Godlikeness of
character, a heart filled with love and mercy. He is satisfied with a religion that has to
do only with outward life. His righteousness is his own--the fruit of his own works--and
judged by a human standard.
Whoever trusts in himself
that he is righteous, will despise others. As the Pharisee judges himself by other men, so
he judges other men by himself. His righteousness is estimated by theirs, and the worse
they are the more righteous by contrast he appears. His self-righteousness leads to
accusing. "Other men" he condemns as transgressors of God's law. Thus he is
making manifest the very spirit of Satan, the accuser of the brethren. With this spirit it
is impossible for him to enter into communion with God. He goes down to his house
destitute of the divine blessing.
The publican had gone to the
temple with other worshipers, but he soon drew apart from them as unworthy to unite in
their devotions. Standing afar off, he "would not lift up so much as his eyes unto
heaven, but smote upon his breast," in bitter anguish and self-abhorrence. He felt
that he had transgressed against God, that he was sinful and polluted. He could not expect
even pity from those around him, for they looked upon him with contempt. He knew that he
had no merit to commend him to God, and in utter self-despair he cried, "God be
merciful to me, a sinner." He did not compare himself with others.
with a sense of guilt, he stood as if alone in God's presence. His only desire was for
pardon and peace, his only plea was the mercy of God. And he was blessed. "I tell
you," Christ said, "this man went down to his house justified rather than the
The Pharisee and the publican
represent two great classes into which those who come to worship God are divided. Their
first two representatives are found in the first two children that were born into the
world. Cain thought himself righteous, and he came to God with a thank offering only. He
made no confession of sin, and acknowledged no need of mercy. But Abel came with the blood
that pointed to the Lamb of God. He came as a sinner, confessing himself lost; his only
hope was the unmerited love of God. The Lord had respect to his offering, but to Cain and
his offering He had not respect. The sense of need, the recognition of our poverty and
sin, is the very first condition of acceptance with God. "Blessed are the poor in
spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." Matt. 5:3.
For each of the classes
represented by the Pharisee and the publican there is a lesson in the history of the
apostle Peter. In his early discipleship Peter thought himself strong. Like the Pharisee,
in his own estimation he was "not as other men are." When Christ on the eve of
His betrayal forewarned His disciples, "All ye shall be offended because of Me this
night," Peter confidently declared, "Although all shall be offended, yet will
not I." Mark 14:27, 29. Peter did not know his own danger. Self-confidence misled
him. He thought himself able to withstand temptation; but in a few short hours the test
came, and with cursing and swearing he denied his Lord.
When the crowing of the cock
reminded him of the words of Christ, surprised and shocked at what he had just
turned and looked at his Master. At that moment Christ looked at Peter, and beneath that
grieved look, in which compassion and love for him were blended, Peter understood himself.
He went out and wept bitterly. That look of Christ's broke his heart. Peter had come to
the turning point, and bitterly did he repent his sin. He was like the publican in his
contrition and repentance, and like the publican he found mercy. The look of Christ
assured him of pardon.
Now his self-confidence was
gone. Never again were the old boastful assertions repeated.
Christ after His resurrection
thrice tested Peter. "Simon, son of Jonas," He said, "lovest thou Me more
than these?" Peter did not now exalt himself above his brethren. He appealed to the
One who could read His heart. "Lord," he said, "Thou knowest all things;
Thou knowest that I love Thee." John 21:15, 17.
Then he received his
commission. A work broader and more delicate than had heretofore been his was appointed
him. Christ bade him feed the sheep and the lambs. In thus committing to his stewardship
the souls for whom the Saviour had laid down his own life, Christ gave to Peter the
strongest proof of confidence in his restoration. The once restless, boastful,
self-confident disciple had become subdued and contrite. Henceforth he followed his Lord
in self-denial and self-sacrifice. He was a partaker of Christ's sufferings; and when
Christ shall sit upon the throne of His glory, Peter will be a partaker in His glory.
The evil that led to Peter's
fall and that shut out the Pharisee from communion with God is proving the ruin of
thousands today. There is nothing so offensive to God or so dangerous to the human soul as
pride and self-sufficiency. Of all sins it is the most hopeless, the most incurable.
Peter's fall was not
instantaneous, but gradual. Self-confidence led him to the belief that he was saved, and
step after step was taken in the downward path, until he could deny his Master. Never can
we safely put confidence in self or feel, this side of heaven, that we are secure against
temptation. Those who accept the Saviour, however sincere their conversion, should never
be taught to say or to feel that they are saved. This is misleading. Every one should be
taught to cherish hope and faith; but even when we give ourselves to Christ and know that
He accepts us, we are not beyond the reach of temptation. God's word declares, "Many
shall be purified, and made white, and tried." Dan. 12:10. Only he who endures the
trial will receive the crown of life. (James 1:12.)
Those who accept Christ, and
in their first confidence say, I am saved, are in danger of trusting to themselves. They
lose sight of their own weakness and their constant need of divine strength. They are
unprepared for Satan's devices, and under temptation many, like Peter, fall into the very
depths of sin. We are admonished, "Let him that thinketh he standeth, take heed lest
he fall." 1 Cor. 10:12. Our only safety is in constant distrust of self, and
dependence on Christ.
It was necessary for Peter to
learn his own defects of character, and his need of the power and grace of Christ. The
Lord could not save him from trial, but He could have saved him from defeat. Had Peter
been willing to receive Christ's warning, he would have been watching unto prayer. He
would have walked with fear and trembling lest his feet should stumble. And he would have
received divine help so that Satan could not have gained the victory.
It was through
self-sufficiency that Peter fell; and it was through repentance and humiliation that his
feet were again established. In the record of his experience every repenting sinner may
find encouragement. Though Peter
had grievously sinned, he was not forsaken. The words of
Christ were written upon his soul, "I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail
not." Luke 22:32. In his bitter agony of remorse, this prayer, and the memory of
Christ's look of love and pity, gave him hope. Christ after His resurrection remembered
Peter, and gave the angel the message for the women, "Go your way, tell His disciples
and Peter that He goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see Him." Mark 16:7.
Peter's repentance was accepted by the sin-pardoning Saviour.
And the same compassion that
reached out to rescue Peter is extended to every soul who has fallen under temptation. It
is Satan's special device to lead man into sin, and then leave him, helpless and
trembling, fearing to seek for pardon. But why should we fear, when God has said,
"Let him take hold of My strength, that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make
peace with Me?" Isa. 27:5. Every provision has been made for our infirmities, every
encouragement offered us to come to Christ.
Christ offered up His broken
body to purchase back God's heritage, to give man another trial. "Wherefore He is
able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by Him, seeing He ever liveth
to make intercession for them." Heb. 7:25. By His spotless life, His obedience, His
death on the cross of Calvary, Christ interceded for the lost race. And now, not as a mere
petitioner does the Captain of our salvation intercede for us, but as a Conqueror claiming
His victory. His offering is complete, and as our Intercessor He executes His
self-appointed work, holding before God the censer containing His own spotless merits and
the prayers, confessions, and thanksgiving of His people. Perfumed with the fragrance of
His righteousness, these ascend to God as a sweet savor. The offering is wholly
acceptable, and pardon covers all transgression.
Christ has pledged Himself to
be our substitute and surety, and He neglects no one. He who could not see human beings
exposed to eternal ruin without pouring out His soul unto death in their behalf, will look
with pity and compassion upon every soul who realizes that he cannot save himself.
He will look upon no
trembling suppliant without raising him up. He who through His own atonement provided for
man an infinite fund of moral power, will not fail to employ this power in our behalf. We
may take our sins and sorrows to His feet; for He loves us. His every look and word
invites our confidence. He will shape and mold our characters according to His own will.
In the whole Satanic force
there is not power to overcome one soul who in simple trust casts himself on Christ.
"He giveth power to the faint; and to them that have no might He increaseth
strength." Isa. 40:29.
"If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to
forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." The Lord says,
"Only acknowledge thine iniquity, that thou hast transgressed against the Lord thy
God." "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean; from
all your filthiness and from all your idols will I cleanse you." 1 John 1:9; Jer.
3:13; Eze. 36:25.
But we must have a knowledge
of ourselves, a knowledge that will result in contrition, before we can find pardon and
peace. The Pharisee felt no conviction of sin. The Holy Spirit could not work with him.
His soul was encased in a self-righteous armor which the arrows of God, barbed and
true-aimed by angel hands, failed to penetrate. It is only he who knows himself to be a
sinner that Christ can save. He came "to heal the brokenhearted, to preach
deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them
that are bruised." Luke 4:18. But "they that are whole need not a
physician." Luke 5:31. We must know our real condition, or we shall not feel our need
of Christ's help. We must understand our danger, or we shall not flee to the refuge. We
must feel the pain of our wounds, or we should not desire healing.
The Lord says, "Because
thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest
not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked: I counsel thee
to buy of Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white raiment, that
thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear; and anoint
thine eyes with eyesalve, that thou mayest see." Rev. 3:17, 18. The gold tried in the
fire is faith that works by love. Only this can bring us into harmony with God. We may be
active, we may do much work; but without love, such love as dwelt in the heart of Christ,
we can never be numbered with the family of heaven.
No man can of himself
understand his errors. "The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately
wicked; who can know it?" Jer. 17:9. The lips may express a poverty of soul that the
heart does not acknowledge. While speaking to God of poverty of spirit, the heart may be
swelling with the conceit of its own superior humility and exalted righteousness. In one
way only can a true knowledge of self be obtained. We must behold Christ. It is ignorance
of Him that makes men so uplifted in their own righteousness. When we contemplate His
purity and excellence, we shall see our own weakness and poverty and defects as they
really are. We shall see ourselves lost and hopeless, clad in garments of
self-righteousness, like every other sinner. We shall see that if we are ever saved, it
will not be through our own goodness, but through God's infinite grace.
The prayer of the publican
was heard because it showed dependence reaching forth to lay hold upon Omnipotence. Self
to the publican appeared nothing but shame. Thus it must be seen by all who seek God. By
faith--faith that renounces all self-trust--the needy suppliant is to lay hold upon
No outward observances can
take the place of simple faith and entire renunciation of self. But no man can empty
himself of self. We can only consent for Christ to accomplish the work. Then the language
of the soul will be, Lord, take my heart; for I cannot give it. It is Thy property. Keep
it pure, for I cannot keep it for Thee. Save me in spite of myself, my weak, unchristlike
self. Mold me, fashion me, raise me into a pure and holy atmosphere, where the rich
current of Thy love can flow through my soul.
It is not only at the
beginning of the Christian life that this renunciation of self is to be made. At every
step heavenward it is to be renewed. All our good works are dependent on a power
outside of ourselves. Therefore there needs to be a continual reaching out of the heart
after God, a continual, earnest, heartbreaking confession of sin and humbling of the soul
before Him. Only by constant renunciation of self and dependence on Christ can we walk
The nearer we come to Jesus
and the more clearly we discern the purity of His character, the more clearly we shall
discern the exceeding sinfulness of sin and the less we shall feel like exalting
ourselves. Those whom heaven recognizes as holy ones are the last to parade their own
goodness. The apostle Peter became a faithful minister of Christ, and he was greatly
honored with divine light and power; he had an active part in the upbuilding of Christ's
church; but Peter never forgot the fearful experience of his humiliation; his sin was
forgiven; yet well he knew that for the weakness of character which had caused his fall
only the grace of Christ could avail. He found in himself nothing in which to glory.
None of the apostles or
prophets ever claimed to be without sin. Men who have lived nearest to God, men who would
sacrifice life itself rather than knowingly commit a wrong act, men whom God had honored
with divine light and power, have confessed the sinfulness of their own nature. They have
put no confidence in the flesh, have claimed no righteousness of their own, but have
trusted wholly in the righteousness of Christ. So will it be with all who behold Christ.
At every advance step in
Christian experience our repentance will deepen. It is to those whom the Lord has
forgiven, to those whom He acknowledges as His people, that He says, "Then shall ye
remember your own evil ways, and your doings that were not good, and shall loathe
yourselves in your own sight." Eze. 36:31. Again He says, "I will establish My
covenant with thee, and thou shalt know that I am the Lord; that thou mayest remember, and
be confounded, and never open thy mouth any more because of thy shame, when I am pacified
toward thee for all that thou hast done, saith the Lord God." Eze. 16:62, 63. Then
our lips will not be opened in self-glorification. We shall know that our sufficiency is
in Christ alone. We shall make the apostle's confession our own. "I know that in me
(that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good thing." Rom. 7:18. "God forbid that I
should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified
unto me, and I unto the world." Gal. 6:14.
In harmony with this
experience is the command, "Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. For
it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of His good pleasure." Phil.
2:12, 13. God does not bid you fear that He will fail to fulfill His promises, that His
patience will weary, or His compassion be found wanting. Fear lest your will shall not be
held in subjection to Christ's will, lest your hereditary and cultivated traits of
character shall control your life. "It is God which worketh in you both to will and
to do of His good pleasure. Fear lest self shall interpose between your soul and the great
Master Worker. Fear lest self-will shall mar the high purpose that through you God desires
to accomplish. Fear to trust to your own strength, fear to withdraw your hand from the
hand of Christ and attempt to walk life's pathway without His abiding presence.
We need to shun everything
that would encourage pride and self-sufficiency; therefore we should beware of giving or
receiving flattery or praise. It is Satan's work to flatter. He deals in flattery as well
as in accusing and condemnation. Thus he seeks to work the ruin of the soul. Those
give praise to men are used by Satan as his agents. Let the workers for Christ direct
every word of praise away from themselves. Let self be put out of sight. Christ alone is
to be exalted. "Unto Him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in His own
blood," let every eye be directed, and praise from every heart ascend. (Rev. 1:5.)
The life in which the fear of
the Lord is cherished will not be a life of sadness and gloom. It is the absence of Christ
that makes the countenance sad, and the life a pilgrimage of sighs. Those who are filled
with self-esteem and self-love do not feel the need of a living, personal union with
Christ. The heart that has not fallen on the Rock is proud of its wholeness. Men want a
dignified religion. They desire to walk in a path wide enough to take in their own
attributes. Their self-love, their love of popularity and love of praise, exclude the
Saviour from their hearts, and without Him there is gloom and sadness. But Christ dwelling
in the soul is a wellspring of joy. For all who receive Him, the very keynote of the word
of God is rejoicing.
"For thus saith the high
and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy: I dwell in the high and holy
place, with him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the
humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones." Isa. 57:15.
It was when Moses was hidden
in the cleft of the rock that he beheld the glory of God. It is when we hide in the riven
Rock that Christ will cover us with His own pierced hand, and we shall hear what the Lord
saith unto His servants. To us as to Moses, God will reveal Himself as "merciful and
gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands,
forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin." Ex. 34:6, 7.
The work of redemption
involves consequences of which
it is difficult for man to have any conception. "Eye
hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which
God hath prepared for them that love Him." 1 Cor. 2:9. As the sinner, drawn by the
power of Christ, approaches the uplifted cross, and prostrates himself before it, there is
a new creation. A new heart is given him. He becomes a new creature in Christ Jesus.
Holiness finds that it has nothing more to require. God Himself is "the justifier of
him which believeth in Jesus." Rom. 3:26. And "whom He justified, them He also
glorified." Rom. 8:30. Great as is the shame and degradation through sin, even
greater will be the honor and exaltation through redeeming love. To human beings striving
for conformity to the divine image there is imparted an outlay of heaven's treasure, an
excellency of power, that will place them higher than even the angels who have never
"Thus saith the Lord,
the Redeemer of Israel, and His Holy One, to him whom man despiseth, to him whom the
nation abhorreth, . . . Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship, because of
the Lord that is faithful, and the Holy One of Israel, and He shall choose thee."
"For every one that
exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted."